The climate can be very cool with spring time frost being a potential hazard for the vines. Other vegetation in the valley, mostly under private control, consists of tree species of oak, beech and pine. The second-longest tributary, the 372 km (231 mi) Vienne, joins the Loire at Candes-Saint-Martin at 47°12′45″N 0°4′31″E / 47.21250°N 0.07528°E / 47.21250; 0.07528, followed by the 367.5 km (228.4 mi) Cher, which joins the Loire near Cinq-Mars-la-Pile at 47°20′33″N 0°28′49″E / 47.34250°N 0.48028°E / 47.34250; 0.48028 and the 287 km (178 mi) Indre, which joins the Loire near Néman at 47°14′2″N 0°11′0″E / 47.23389°N 0.18333°E / 47.23389; 0.18333.  There was further refinement in the design of the châteaux in the 15th century before the Baroque style came into prominence with decorative and elegantly designed interiors and which became fashionable from the 16th to the end of the 18th century. Sèvre Nantaise (in Nantes) Erdre (in Nantes) Èvre (in Le Marillais) Layon (in Chalonnes-sur-Loire) Maine (near Angers) Mayenne (near Angers) Oudon (in Le Lion-d'Angers) Verzée (in Segré) Ernée (in Saint-Jean-sur-Mayenne) Sarthe (near Angers) Loir (north of A  The number of sunny hours per year varies between 1400 and 2200 and increases from northwest to southeast. The coastal zone shows hard dark stones, granite, schist and thick soil mantle.. The river has a discharge rate of 863 m3/s (30,500 cu ft/s), which is an average over the period 1967–2008.  The reason for this is its sheer length and possibility of extensive navigation, which severely limits the scope of river conservation. PK 10.9 Railway bridge (Alleud) The Loire flows roughly northward through Roanne and Nevers to Orléans and thereafter westward through Tours to Nantes, where it forms an estuary. , The geological formations in the Loire river basin can be grouped into two sets of formations, namely, the basement domain and the domain of sedimentary formations. Some notable Châteaux on the Loire include Beaufort- Mareuil sur Cher – Lavoûte-Polignac – Bouthéon – Montrond – Bastie d'Urfé – Château féodal des Cornes d'Urfé – La Roche – Château féodal de Saint-Maurice-sur-Loire – Saint-Pierre-la-Noaille – Chevenon – Palais ducal de Nevers – Saint-Brisson – Gien – La Bussière – Pontchevron – La Verrerie (near Aubigny-sur-Nère) – Sully-sur-Loire – Châteauneuf-sur-Loire – Boisgibault – Meung-sur-Loire – Menars – Talcy – Château de la Ferté – Chambord – Blois – Villesavin – Cheverny – Beauregard – Troussay – Château de Chaumont – Amboise – Clos-Lucé – Langeais – Gizeux – Les Réaux – Montsoreau – Montreuil-Bellay – Saint-Loup-sur-Thouet – Saumur – Boumois – Brissac – Montgeoffroy – Plessis-Bourré – Château des Réaux. 45-Crue-mixte.svg 1.930 × 1.824; 4,51 MB. click for Fullsize. The region experiences a rainfall of 690 mm (27.2 in) along the coast and 648 mm (25.5 in) inland. The Crémant de Loire which refers to any sparkling wine made according to the traditional method of Champagne.  Many inhabitants around the present city of Orléans have names bearing witness to the Alan presence – Allaines. The Loire Valley has been inhabited since the Middle Palaeolithic period from 40–90 ka. It also depends strongly on the season, and the flow of only 10 m3/s (350 cu ft/s) is not uncommon in August–September near Orléans. There are two generic designation that can be used across the whole of the Loire Valley. Loire River, longest river in France, rising in the southern Massif Central and flowing north and west for 634 miles (1,020 km) to the Atlantic Ocean, which it enters south of the Bretagne (Brittany) peninsula. From commons.wikimedia.org. Authority – VNF – Direction régionale de Nantes Essential navigation guides, maps and books from publishers Breil, Fluviacarte and Imray.  During the reign of François I from 1515 to 1547, the Italian Renaissance had a profound influence upon the region, as people adopted its elements in the architecture and culture, particularly among the elite who expressed its principles in their chateaus. This style was perpetuated during the reign of Louis XVI (1774–92) but with more refinements; one such refined château seen close to Angers is the Château de Montgeoffroy.  Downstream of Nevers lies the Loire Valley, a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its fine assortment of castles.  It is also known as the Garden of France – due to the abundance of vineyards, fruit orchards, artichoke, asparagus and cherry fields which line the banks of the river – and also as the "cradle of the French language". Chécy Belles Rives est située à 3½ km à l'est de Prairie de Bionne. The Upper Loire includes the Sauvignon blanc dominated areas of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé. Media in category "Maps of Loire River" The following 23 files are in this category, out of 23 total. On December 2, 2000, UNESCO added the central part of the Loire valley, between Bouchemaine in Anjou and Sully-sur-Loire in Loiret, to its list of World Heritage Sites. R at ing . It forms the western section of the EuroVelo 6 route (linking Black Sea to Atlantic). France Map with river Loire Highlighted See map details From commons.wikimedia.org. View Location View Map. At a certain point during the long history of uplift in the Paris Basin, the lower, Atlantic Loire captured the "palaeo-Loire" or Loire séquanaise ("Seine Loire"), producing the present river. They also began building the city of Caesarodunum, now Tours, from AD 1. With decreasing flow, first species which appear are single-celled diatoms such as Cyclostephanos invisitatus, C. meneghiniana, S. Hantzschii and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Many have been taken over by a local government authority or the giant structures like those at Chambord are owned and operated by the national government and are major tourist sites, attracting hundreds of thousands of visitors each year. In choosing this area that includes the French départements of Loiret, Loir-et-Cher, Indre-et-Loire, and Maine-et-Loire, the committee said that the Loire Valley is: PK 0.4 La Pointe Bouchemaine r/b, pontoons, water, slipway (11218800964).jpg 4,292 × 3,302; 2.32 MB. La source de la Loire, by Gustave Courbet. In 1707, floods were said to have drowned 50,000 people in the river valley, with the water rising more than 3 m (9.8 ft) in two hours in Orléans. The tidal stretch of the river extends to a length of 60 km (37 mi) and a width of 3 km (1.9 mi), which has oil refineries, the port of Saint-Nazaire and 40,000 hectares (99,000 acres) of wetland whose formation is dated to 7500 BC (caused by inundation by sea waters on the northern bank of the estuary), and the beaches of Le Croisic and La Baule along the coastline. These works, with groynes and submersible embankments, survive and contribute to the limited navigability under present-day conditions. Comprehensive detailed navigational information, km by km, Sete west to Toulouse. PK 84.3 Nantes bridge (Georges Clemenceau), town centre 1700m r/b Loire river. , The river flows through the continental ecoregions of Massif central and Bassin Parisien south and in its Lower course partly through South Atlantic and Brittany. Chécy Belles Rives est un centre commercial français situé à l'est de la métropole orléanaise sur le territoire de la commune de Chécy dans le département du Loiret et la région Centre-Val de Loire. However, the hazardous free-flow navigation and limited tonnages meant that railways rapidly killed off the surviving traffic from the 1850s. kids.britannica.com. The 3 chateaux visited in one day was exhausting but worth it. During the harvest months rain can cause the grapes to be harvested under ripe but can also aid in the development of Botrytis cinerea for the region's dessert wines.  The lower course of the river is characterized by wetlands and fens, which are of major importance to conservation, given that they form unique habitats for migratory birds.. 45-ZI-Digues.png 5,457 × 3,543; 1.56 MB. www.smithsonianjourneys.org. The Loire gives its name to six departments: Loire, Haute-Loire, Loire-Atlantique, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, and Saône-et-Loire. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean at 47°16′44″N 2°10′19″W / 47.27889°N 2.17194°W / 47.27889; -2.17194 between Saint-Nazaire and Saint-Brevin-les-Pins, connected by a bridge over the river near its mouth. Asparagus was also brought from northwestern France. With a complement of just 100-200 guests on board, river cruise ships (or ‘riverboats’) offer close, friendly and personal hospitality. Shallow-draught gabares and other river craft continued to transport goods into the industrial era, including coal from Saint-Étienne loaded on to barges in Orléans. Guest House, Bed and Breakfast, Hotel, Camping, Inn.  This lies in the north-eastern part of the southern Cévennes highlands, in the Ardèche commune of Sainte-Eulalie of southeastern France. The discharge rate varies strongly along the river, with roughly 350 m3/s (12,000 cu ft/s) at Orléans and 900 m3/s (32,000 cu ft/s) at the mouth. Its major tributary is the Allier, which joins the Loire at Le Bec d’Allier. Nantes is the largest city on the Loire River, located some 31 miles from the Atlantic coast. History – In 1700 the port of Nantes numbered more inland waterway craft than any other port in France. click on the map to enlarge Vector editable map of the whole course of the river La Loire with crossed departmental boundaries and major cities. www.listnbest.com. La Loire est le plus long fleuve de France [N 1], avec une longueur de 1 006 kilomètres .Elle prend sa source sur le versant sud du mont Gerbier-de-Jonc au sud-est du Massif central dans le département de l'Ardèche, et se jette dans l’océan Atlantique par un estuaire situé en Loire-Atlantique, dans l'ouest de la région des Pays de la Loire.  In 1992, they aided the ‘Loire Nature’ project, which received funds of some $US 9 million under the EU's ‘LIFE’ programme until 1999, embarking upon restoration to the river's ecosystems and wildlife. PK 83.5 Bridge (Léopold Sédar Senghor) The basement domain primarily consists of metamorphic and siliceous fragmented rocks with groundwater occurring in fissures. France... France Ecclesiastical Map 1789-1802 44 miles away. Unlike most other rivers in western Europe, there are very few dams or locks creating obstacles to its natural flow. The chronology of the rulers is presented; in the table below.. Loire Valley Chateaux Map. In the 5th century, the Roman Empire declined and the Franks and the Alemanni came to the area from the east. PK 0.0 Confluence of Maine, r/b With a length of 1,006 kilometres (625 mi), it drains 117,054 km (45,195 sq mi), more than a fifth of France's land while its average discharge is only half that of the Rhône. , The Loire Valley has been called the "Garden of France" and is studded with over a thousand châteaux, each with distinct architectural embellishments covering a wide range of variations, from the early medieval to the late Renaissance periods. Located in the heart of France, the Loire Valley is a spectacular region of Central France situated on the UNESCO World Heritage site of the Loire River. PK 14.6 Chalonnes-sur-Loire bridge, quay u/s l/b  In 1572 some 3000 Huguenots were slaughtered in Paris in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. PK 85.3 Confluence of Sèvre-Nantaise, l/b The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is common in the upper streams, whereas the flounder (Platichtys flesus) and flathead mullet (Mugil spp.) PK 84.9 Bridges (Pirmil), tramway lines 2 & 3  A dam across the Loire at Saint-Léger-des-Vignes provides navigable conditions to cross from the Canal du Nivernais to the Canal latéral à la Loire.  The Phoenicians and Greeks had used pack horses to transport goods from Lyon to the Loire to get from the Mediterranean basin to the Atlantic coast. GR®3 Along the Loire river Hike from Mont Gerbier-de-Jonc (Ardeche) to La Baule (Loire-Atlantique) 1301km . The Loire is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world. 767 x 800 gif 36kB .  The 261 km (162 mi) Canal de Berry, a narrow canal with locks only 2.7 m (8.9 ft) wide, which was opened in the 1820s and connected the Canal latéral à la Loire at Marseilles-lès-Aubigny to the river Cher at Noyers and back into the Loire near Tours, was closed in 1955. The river becomes fully navigable (with reservations, see below) at its confluence with the river Maine at Bouchemaine. In between are the regions of Anjou, Saumur, Bourgueil, Chinon, and Vouvray. The Loire Valley wine region includes the French wine regions situated along the Loire River from the Muscadet region near the city of Nantes on the Atlantic coast to the region of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé just southeast of the city of Orléans in north central France. The Loire Valley itself follows the river through the Loire province to the river's origins in the Cévennes but the majority of the wine production takes place in the regions noted above. tend to stay near the river mouth. At 662.69 metres (2,174.2 ft), this was the longest such structure in the world for quite some time.. They used the Loire as a key trading route by 600 BC, using pack horses to link its trade, such as the metals of the Armorican Massif, with Phoenicia and Ancient Greece via Lyon on the Rhône. PK 86.3 Bridge (Trois Continents) There are over 300 dotted around the region, earning a large stretch along the Loire river UNESCO World Heritage status in 2000. In 52 BC, the Romans built a city in Tours. It is originally a mere trickle of water located at 1,408 m (4,619 ft) above sea-level. File in this download: Illustrator map inlayers Photoshop map in Layers WMF map for Word, Excel and PowerPoint SVG map for experts Also available with roads and .  The Romans used the Loire as far as Roanne, around 150 km (93 mi) downriver from the source. Map 1994 by Loire Vivante (english) The 4 parts of the Plan Loire Grandeur Nature 1994, by Loire Vivante/ERN (english) Plan Loire ... Minister of the Environment, announced a long-term management plan for the Loire river and its watershed, which was called « Plan Loire Grandeur Nature ». This map was created by a user. As of 2017[update], the following sections are navigable: The French language adjective ligérien is derived from the name of the Loire, as in le climat ligérien ("the climate of the Loire Valley"). For other uses, see, "Loira" redirects here. PK 83.2 Projected bridge * It then flows north to Orleans and then west through Tours and on to the Atlantic coast at Nantes.--a distance of over 1000km. Four nuclear power plants are located on the river: Belleville, Chinon, Dampierre and Saint-Laurent. Loire Valley Map.  With a length of 1,006 kilometres (625 mi), it drains 117,054 km2 (45,195 sq mi), more than a fifth of France's land while its average discharge is only half that of the Rhône. The Gaulish name comes from the Gaulish word liga, which means "silt, sediment, deposit, alluvium", a word that gave French lie, as in sur lie, which in turn gave English lees. The largest tributary of the river is the Allier, 410 km (250 mi) in length, which joins the Loire near the town of Nevers at 46°57′34″N 3°4′44″E / 46.95944°N 3.07889°E / 46.95944; 3.07889.